Gardenforms.com

PALMS
Most Palm varieties are in reference of "Gardenforms Landscape Plant Guide", Chapter 1.  Palms excluded from Plant Guide reference notes (*).
Archontophoenix alexandrae (ALEXANDRA PALM)* 
Climate Zone: 
Exposure: 
Watering:
 
Growth Rate: 
Height/Width: 
Foliage: 
Flowers: 

Fruits: 

Uses: 

  • Shade Tolerate
  • Indoor Use
  • Fire Resistant
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Costa Mesa, CA (South Coast Plaza).  Left Palm in photograph in comparison to A. cunninghamiana.
Trunk Size Comparison
A. alexandrae (left) and A. cunninghamiana (right)
Archontophoenix cunninghamiana (KING PALM)
Climate Zone: 21-24; protect in 18-20;
seen in zone 17; Indoors
Exposure: Sun to partial; can tolerate
shade at an early age
Watering:
Moderate
Growth Rate: Slow to Moderate
Height/Width: 40-60' x 10-15'
Foliage: Pinnate (feather), dark green
Flowers:
Violet-purple
Fruits:
Numerous, small pink to red
Uses:

  • Shade Tolerate
  • Indoor Use
  • Fire Resistant
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Costa Mesa, CA
Arenga engleri (DWARF SUGAR PALM)*
Climate Zone: 
Exposure: 
Watering:
 
Growth Rate: 
Height/Width: 
Foliage: 
Flowers: 

Fruits: 

Uses:
Photo Taken: The Huntington Botanical Gardens, San Marino, CA
Bismarckia nobilis (BISMARCK PALM)*
Brahea armata (MEXICAN BLUE PALM)
Climate Zone:  10, 12-17, 19-24, H1
Exposures: Sun
Watering:
Low
Growth Rate: Slow
Height/Width: 25-40' x 10-15'
Foliage: Palmate (Fan), blue-green; spines on petioles
Flowers:
Cream to yellow on 8-12' stalks
Fruits:
Yellowish-brown
Uses:

  • Fire Resistant (if maintained)
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Cal Poly Pomona (Palm Canyon)
Brahea edulis (GUADALUPE FAN PALM)
Climate Zone:  12-24
Exposure: Sun
Watering:
Low
Growth Rate: Slow
Height/Width: 25-30' x 10-15'
Foliage: Palmate (Fan), mid-green; no spines on petioles
Flowers:
Slightly fragrant, light yellow to cream
Fruits:
Edible, brown to black
Uses:
  • Edible Fruits (but with little taste)
  • Fire Resistant (if maintained)
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Costa Mesa, CA
Brahea edulis (left) and Brahea armata (right)
This photograph was taken in the mid 1990's at a school ground in the City of Pomona (Los Angeles County), where rarely these Brahea palms are planted together to be viewed in comparison at such an older age.  Gardenforms assumes these palms to be 30+ years old.
Brahea edulis x brandegeei (HYBRID HESPER PALM)*
Butia capitata (JELLY PALM, PINDO PALM)
Climate Zone:  8, 9, 12-24, H1, H2; seen in zone 11
Exposure: Sun to partial
Watering:
Low
Growth Rate: Slow
Height/Width: 10-20' x 10-15'
Foliage: Pinnate (feather) blue-green; spines on petioles
Flowers:
Creamy yellow
Fruits:
Edible, yellow to orange (summer)
Uses:

  • Edible Fruits (good with sugar)
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Claremont, CA
Edible, yellow to orange fruits (0.75-1.25") fruits ripen in the summer when fruits naturally fall off of the Jelly/Pindo Palm.  Initially the taste of the fruit is slightly sour, but with a little sugar the fruits are actually enjoyable with the texture of a plum and the shape of a small tomato.
x Butiagrus nabonnandi
(Syn. Butiarecastrum)


This photograph was taken in 1995 at the Huntington Gardens in San Marino where this established, but rare crossed variety palm (Butia capitata x Syagrus romanzoffianum - the Queen Palm), can be seen in the Huntington Palm Garden area.
Caryota mitis (CLUSTERED FISHTAIL PALM)
Climate Zone: 23, 24, H2; Indoors
Exposure: Sun to partial; shade tolerate
Watering:
Moderate
Growth Rate: Slow to Moderate
Height/Width: 15-30- x 10-20' (clumping growth habit)
Foliage: Bipinnate (bi-feather), dark green
Flowers:
Yellow to pale cream
Fruits:
Yellowish green fruits that turn orange to dark red; fruits are irritating to the skin if not handled with gloves
Uses:
  • Shade Tolerate
  • Indoor Use
  • Fire Resistant (possibly)
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Costa Mesa, CA (South Coast Plaza)
Caryota no (GIANT FISHTAIL PALM)*
Climate Zone:
Exposure:
Watering:

Growth Rate: 
Height/Width:
Foliage:
Flowers:
Fruits:
Uses:

  • Indoor Use
  • Fire Resistant (possibly)
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Dana Point, CA
Caryota urens (FISHTAIL PALM)
Climate Zone: 23, 24, H2; Indoors
Exposures: Sun to partial; shade tolerate
Watering:
Moderate to High
Growth Rate: Moderate to Fast
Height/Width: 30-40'+ x 15-20'
Foliage: Bipinnate (bi-feather), dark green
Flowers:
Cream to green
Fruits:
Reddish fruits that can be irritating if not handled with gloves
Uses:

  • Shade Tolerate
  • Indoor Use
  • Fire Resistant (possibly)
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Costa Mesa, CA (South Coast Plaza)
Chamaedorea elegans (PARLOR PALM)
Climate Zone: 16, 17, 22-24, H2; Indoors; seen in 21
Exposure: Shade to partial
Watering:
High
Growth Rate: Slow
Height/Width: 4-6' x 3-4'
Foliage: Pinnate (feather), mid-green
Flowers:
Yellow
Fruits:
Black
Uses:

  • Shade Exposure
  • Indoor Use
  • Fire Resistant (possibly)
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: San Marino, CA (Huntington Botanical Gardens)
Chamaedorea ernesti-augusti (TUNA-TAIL PALM)*
Chamaedorea erumpens (BAMBOO PALM)
Climate Zone: 16, 17, 22-24, H2; Indoors
Exposure: Shade to partial
Watering:
High
Growth Rate: Slow to Moderate
Height/Width: 6-10' x 3-4' (clumping growth habit)
Foliage: Pinnate (feather), mid to dark green
Flowers:
Greenish to yellow
Fruits:
Orange
Uses:

  • Shade Exposure
  • Indoor Use
  • Fire Resistant (possibly)
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Pomona, CA (Oliver A. "Jolly" Batcheller Conservatory)
Chamaedorea seifrizii (BAMBOO PALM)
Climate Zone: 13, 16, 17, 22-24, H2; Indoors
Exposure: Shade to partial
Watering:
High
Growth Rate: Slow to Moderate
Height/Width: 8-10' x 6-8' (clumping growth habit)
Foliage: Pinnate (feather), mid to light green
Flowers:
Yellow
Fruits:
Greenish black to black
Uses:

  • Shade Exposure
  • Indoor Use
  • Fire Resistant (possibly)
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: San Marino, CA (Huntington Botanical Gardens)
Chamaerops humilis (MEDITERRANEAN FAN PALM)
Climate Zone: 4-24; H1, H2
Exposure: Sun to partial
Watering:
Low to Moderate
Growth Rate: Slow to Moderate
Height/Width: 15-20' x 15-20' (clumping growth habit)
Foliage: Palmate (fan), silver-green; spines on petioes
Flowers:
Yellow to green
Fruits:
Yellow to dull brown
Uses:

  • Indoor Use (possibly)
  • Fire Resistant (if maintained)
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Cal Poly Pomona
Chamaerops humilis 'Goldstrip' (VARIEGATED MEDITERRANEAN FAN PALM)*
Dypsis decaryi (TRIANGLE PALM)
Climate Zone: 20-24, H2; Indoors
Exposure: Sun to partial
Watering:
Moderate
Growth Rate: Slow
Height/Width: 10-20' x 8-15'
Foliage: Pinnate (feather), blue-green
Flowers:
Cream
Fruits:
Olive-green
Uses:

  • Indoor Use
  • Fire Resistant (possibly)
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Costa Mesa, CA
Dypsis lutescens (GOLDEN CANE PALM)
Climate Zone: 23, 24, H1, H2; Indoors
Exposure: Sun to shade; light shade in zone 23
Watering:
Moderate
Growth Rate: Slow
Height/Width: 10-20' x 10-20'
Foliage: Pinnate (feather), green to yellow green
Flowers:
Yellow-cream (spring)
Fruits:
Pale yellow to back (summer)
Uses:

  • Shade Exposure
  • Indoor Use
  • Fire Resistant (possibly)
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Costa Mesa, CA
Howea forsteriana (KENTIA PALM)
Climate Zone: 17, 21-24, H1, H2; Indoors; with protection possibly 16, 19 and 20
Exposure: Shade to partial
Watering:
Moderate
Growth Rate: Slow
Height/Width: 30-40' x 15-20'; can grow 60' tall where it is native
Foliage: Pinnate (feather), dark green
Flowers:
Creamy white to cream
Fruits:
Dull orange to deep dull red
Uses:

  • Shade Exposure
  • Indoor Use
  • Fire Resistant (possibly)
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Costa Mesa, CA, (below) California Academy of Science - San Francisco, CA
Jubaea chilensis (CHILEAN WINE PALM)
Climate Zone: 12-24
Exposure: Sun to partial
Watering:
Low to Moderate
Growth Rate: Slow
Height/Width: 50-60' x 25-35'
Foliiage: Pinnate (feather), gray-green; spines on petioles
Flowers:
Purplish maroon and yellow
Fruits:
Small, edible, pale yellow fruits that taste like coconut
Uses:

  • Edible Fruits
  • Indoor Use
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Santa Barbara, CA
Livistona australis (Australian Fan Palm)
Climate Zone: 13-17, 19-24, H1, H2
Exposure: Sun to partial
Watering:
Moderate
Growth Rate: Slow
Height/Width: 40-50' x 12-15'
Foliage: Palmate (fan), mid-green that droop at the tips; spines on petioles
Flowers:
Cream (spring)
Fruits:
Reddish brown to black (summer to fall)
Uses:

  • Indoor Use
  • Fire Resistant (possibly if maintained)
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: San Marino, CA (Huntington Botanical Gardens)
Livistona chinensis (CHINESE FAN PALM)
Climate Zone: 13-17, 19-24, H1, H2
Exposure: Sun to partial
Watering:
Moderate
Growth Rate: Slow
Height/Width: 30-40' x 10-15'
Foliage: Palmate (fan), mid-green to bright green that droop at the tips; spines on petioles
Flowers:
Bright creamy yellow
Fruits:
Deep greenish blue to pinkish gray; dry fruit can be a litter nuisance
Uses:

  • Indoor Use
  • Fire Resistant (possibly)
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Los Anageles, CA (LA County Arboretum and Botanic Garden)
Livistona decipiens (Weeping Cabbage Palm)
Climate Zone: 13-17, 19-24, H1, H2
Exposure: Sun to partial
Watering:
Moderate
Growth Rate: Moderate to Fast
Height/Width: 30-40' x 15-20'
Foliage: Palmate (fan), deep green that droop at the tipes to give a weeping effect; spines on petioles
Flowers:
Bright creamy yellow
Fruits:
Glossy black; dry fruits can be a litter nuisance
Uses:

  • Fire Resistant (possibly)
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Santa Barbara, CA
Phoenix canariensis (CANARY ISLAND DATE PALM)
Climate Zone: 9, 12-24, H1, H2; seen in zone 7
Exposure: Sun
Watering:
Low to Moderate
Growth Rate: Slow; Moderate once trunk is established
Height/Width: 40-60' x 40-50'
Foliage: Pinnate (feather), deep green; spines on petioles
Flowers:
Creamy yellow to yellow-brown (spring)
Fruits:
Bright orange that fades to brown (fall)
Uses:

  • Indoor Use
  • Fire Resistant (possibly)
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Santa Barbara, CA
Phoenix dactylifera (FEMALE-VARIETY DATE PALM)
Climate Zone: 9, 11-24, H1, H2
Esposure: Sun to partial
Watering:
Low to Moderate (Ornamental); High Watering to produce fruits 
Growth Rate: Slow to Moderate
Height/Width: 60-80' x 20-30' (clumping growth habit)
Foliage: Pinnate (feather), gray-green; spines on petioles
Flowers:
Yellow (spring to summer)
Fruits:
Yellow to deep orange (fall)
Uses:

  • Edible Fruits
  • Indoor Use
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Indio, CA
To produced date fruits, dry arid conditions and high watering is required to make the Date Palm actually bare edible fruits, and in some farms in Southern California, orange trees (Citrus sinensis) are also planted along side the Date Palms because of how much water is actually being used to produced the date fruit.

When first noticed, date fruits grow in bunches (see insert photo), yellow to deep orange in color from spring to the summer months, where eventually maturing to brown during the fall months.
Phoenix dactylifera
(MALE-VARIETY DATE PALM)

Photograph Courtesy: W.D. Young & Sons, Indio, CA

Naturally if only depending on wind pollination, a male-variety date palm is required for every female-variety (the palm that actually produces the fruits); although commercially one male-variety can pollinate up to 50 female date palms.
Phoenix loureiroi (CHINESE DATE PALM)*
Phoenix reclinata (SENEGAL DATE PALM)
Climate Zone: 13, 23, 24, H2; seen in zones 18-22
Exposure: Sun to partial
Watering:
Moderate
Growth Rate: Moderate to Fast
Height/Width: 20-30' x 20-30'
Foliage: Pinnate (feather), mid to dark green; spines on petioles
Flowers:
Yellow to cream (spring to summer)
Fruits:
Orange-yellow (fall)
Uses:

  • Fire Resistant (possibly)
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Cal Poly Pomona
Phoenix roebelenii (PYGMY DATE PALM)
Climate Zone: 12, 23, 24, H2; seen in zones 18-22; with protection can possibly be grown in 16-17; seen in zone 16
Exposure: Sun to partial
Watering:
Low to Moderate
Growth Rate: Slow
Height/Width: 6-10' x 6-10'
Foliage: Pinnate (feather), glossy green; spines on petioles
Flowers:
Yellow-cream (spring)
Fruits:
Black (summer)
Uses:

  • Indoor Use
  • Fire Resistant (possibly)
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: San Marino, CA (Huntington Botanical Gardens)
Ravenea rivularis (MAJESTY PALM)
Climate Zone: Seen grown in 19-24; possibly H1, H2
Exposure: Sun to partial; shade tolerate
Watering:
Moderate
Growth Rate: Moderate to Fast; but growth rate slows down after 5 years
Height/Width: 30-40' x 10-15'
Foliage: Pinnate (feather), mid-green; tips will turn brown with inadequate supplement amounts of water
Flowers:
White
Fruits:
Red
Uses:

  • Shade Tolerate
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Newport Beach, CA
Rhapis excelsa (LADY PALM)
Climate Zone: 15-17, 19-24, H1, H2; (shade exposure in zones 12-14, to protect from heat and cold)
Exposure: Shade to partial
Watering:
Moderate
Growth Rate: Slow
Height/Width: 5-12' x 5-12'
Foliage: Palmate (fan), mid to bright green
Flowers:
Pinkish green
Fruits:
Small, white berries
Uses:

  • Shade Exposure
  • Indoor Use
  • Fire Resistant (possibly)
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Costa Mesa, CA (South Coast Plaza)
Rhapis humilis (SLENDER LADY PALM)
Climate Zone: 16, 17, 20-24, H1, H2; seen in zone 19
Exposure: Shade to partial
Watering:
Moderate
Growth Rate: Slow
Height/Width: 12-18' x 12-18'
Foliage: Palmate (fan), mid to dark green
Flowers:
Unknown
Fruits:
Unknown
Uses:

  • Shade Exposure
  • Indoor Use
  • Fire Resistant (possibly)
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Costa Mesa, CA (South Coast Plaza)
Rhapis humilis (left) and Rhapis excelsa (right)
Photograph opportunity was taken of these 2 full grown Rhapis palms (R. humilis and R. excelsa); where both palms have been planted assumed at the same time and grown to a mature height.

This photograph was taken around the summer of 1995 at The Huntington Library, Art Collections and Botanical Gardens in San Marino, California

Syagrus romanzoffianum (QUEEN PALM)
Climate Zone: 12, 13, 15-17, 19-24, H1, H2; seen in zones 8, 9, 18
Exposure: Sun to partial
Watering:
Low to Moderate
Growth Rate: Moderate to Fast
Height/Width: 40-50' x 20-25'
Foliage: Pinnate (feather), mid to dark green
Flowers:
Deep yellow to cream (year round, that starts in the spring)
Fruits:
Yellow-orange husk (fall, winter, spring or summer)
Uses:

  • Indoor Use
  • Fire Resistant
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Anaheim, CA (Disneyland Theme Park Entrance), (middle: Costa Mesa, CA), (bottom: Cal Poly Pomona)
Trachycarpus fortunei (WINDMILL PALM)
Climate Zone: 4-24
Exposure: Sun to partial
Watering:
Low to Moderate
Growth Rate: Moderate
Height/Width: 25-30' x 8-10'
Foliage: Palmate (fan), dark green (above) and silver (beneath)
Flowers:
Yellow-cream (spring)
Fruits:
Bluish white to purple (summer)
Uses:

  • Indoor Use
  • Fire Resistant (if maintained)
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Cal Poly Pomona
Medium Sized Specimen (Paso Robles, CA)
Fiberous-Hair Trunk w/ Petioles
Flowers
Matured Fruits
Washingtonia filifera (CALIFORNIA FAN PALM)
Climate Zone: 11-24, H1, H2; warmer parts of zones 8-10
Exposure: Sun to partial
Watering:
Low to Moderate
Growth Rate: Moderate to Fast
Height/Width: 60-75' x 15-20'
Foliage: Palmate (fan), gray-green; spines on petioles
Flowers:
Cream to white
Fruits:
Small, brownish black to black
Uses:

  • Indoor Use
  • Fire Risk (possibly if not maintained)
  • Deer Resistant
  • CA Native (only palm native to California)
Photo Taken: Monrovia Nursery Entrance (middle: Cal Poly Pomona and Chapman University), (below: Joshua Tree National Park, CA - California Fan Palms in their native setting)
Just Maintained (Cal Poly Pomona))
Newly Planted (Orange, CA)
Natural Habitat (Joshua Tree National Park)
Natural Habitat (Twentynine Palms, CA)
Washingtonia robusta (MEXICAN FAN PALM, SKYDUSTER)
Climate Zone: 11-24, H1, H2; warmer parts of zones 8-10
Exposure: Sun to partial
Watering:
Low to Moderate
Growth Rate: Fast to Very Fast
Height/Width: 80-100' x 10-12'
Foliage: Palmate (fan), bright green; spines on petioles
Flowers:
Cream to white
Fruits:
Dark brown to black (litter nuisance)
Uses:

  • Invasive Growth Habit (self-seeding is a nuisance)
  • Indoor Use
  • Fire Risk (possibly if not maintained)
  • Deer Resistant
Photo Taken: Riverside, CA
Washingtonia filifera (left) and Washingtonia robusta (right)
Photograph was taken near downtown Pomona during the mid-1990's, where both these near matured fan palms are assumed due to the near mature heights to be planted during the early years of the 20th Century.